California NanoSystems Institute
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Raphael Levine, Ph.D.

Professor, Chemistry and Biochemistry, Molecular & Medical Pharmacology
Member, Biochemistry, Biophysics & Structural Biology GPB Home Area, California NanoSystems Institute, JCCC Signal Transduction and Therapeutics Program Area, Molecular Pharmacology GPB Home Area

Ph.D., Nottingham University, 1962 - 1964

Contact Information:
Work Email Address:
Mailing Address: Department of Chemistry
607 Charles E. Young Drive East
mail code 951569
Los Angeles, CA 90095
Work Address: Geology 3608A
Work Phone Number: 310-206-0476 Work
Research Interests:

Levine tries to understand what makes chemical reactions go. To do so he often seeks to view the reaction on the most highly resolved level, that of the actual molecules undergoing the change. As the starting materials evolve into the products, how do the atoms move, what energetic constraints operate and are there any steric requirements. Levine is a theorist but he does attempts to find out what are the concerns of his experimental colleagues. Currently the systems he studies are larger than before and he is able to explore further away from equilibrium. One line of such activity is chemistry under extreme conditions, work for which he was selected for the McCoy Award of the UCLA Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. His most recent book, Molecular Reaction Dynamics (Cambridge University Press, 2005) provides more details. Recently he is also concerned with processes that occur simultaneously on several electronic states (so called, the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation). Dr. Levine's research methods include molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanical methods. Often he seeks a more compact description. For this, methodologies based on information theory and on algebraic quantum mechanics are useful. In particular, they provide methods of data reduction (e.g., surprisal analysis) that can also be used in a predictive model. He prefers models that emphasize key aspects of the problem and allow for a simple conceptual picture of the dynamics as much as exact numerical simulations. He also indulges in examining more long range issues such as his recent activities in making a single molecule act as a computing machine.

Additional Information:

Detailed biographies have been published in Molecular Physics, volume 106 issue #2 (2008) and in the Israel Journal of Chemistry, volume 47, issue #1 (2007). An older biography can be found in the Journal of Physical Chemistry, volume 102, issue #47 (1998).

Selected Publications:

F. Remacle, Nataly Kravchenko-Balasha, Alexander Levitzki, and R. D. Levine, Information-theoretic analysis of phenotype changes in early stages of carcinogenesis, PNAS, 2010, 107 (22), 10324-9.
Graeber TG, Heath JR, Skaggs BJ, Phelps ME, Remacle F, Levine RD, Maximal entropy inference of oncogenicity from phosphorylation signaling, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2010, 107 (13), 6112-7.
Periyasamy G., Levine R. D., Remacle F. , Redox-Executed Logic Operations through the Reversible Voltammetric Response Characteristics of Electroactive Self-Assembled Monolayers , Australian Journal of Chemistry, 2010, 63 (2), 173-183 .
Klein M., Mol J. A., Verduijn J., Levine R. D., et al. , Ternary logic implemented on a single dopant atom field effect silicon transistor, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 2010, 96 (4).
Klein, M. Lansbergen, G. P. Mol, J. A. Rogge, S. Levine, R. D. Remacle, F., Reconfigurable Logic Devices on a Single Dopant Atom-Operation up to a Full Adder by Using Electrical Spectroscopy, Chemphyschem, 2009, 10 (1), 162-173.
Kuznetz, O. Salman, H. Eichen, Y. Remacle, F. Levine, R. D. Speiser, S., All optical full adder based on intramolecular electronic energy transfer in the rhodamine-azulene bichromophoric system, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2008, 112 (40), 15880-15885.
Torres, E. A. Kompa, K. L. Remacle, F. Levine, R. D., Ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy and relaxation in polyatomic molecules: Potential for molecular parallel computing, Chemical Physics, 2008, 347 (1-3), 531-545.
Remacle, F. Kienberger, R. Krausz, F. Levine, R. D., On the feasibility of an ultrafast purely electronic reorganization in lithium hydride, Chemical Physics, 2007, 338 (2-3), 342-347.
Remacle, F. Levine, R. D., Time-resolved electrochemical spectroscopy of charge migration in molecular wires: Computational evidence for rich electronic dynamics, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2007, 111 (5), 2301-2309.
Remacle, F. Levine, R. D., Towards parallel computing: representation of a linear finite state digital logic machine by a molecular relaxation process, European Physical Journal D, 2007, 42 (1), 49-59.
Klein, M. Rogge, S. Remacle, F. Levine, R. D., Transcending binary logic by gating three coupled quantum dots, Nano Letters, 2007, 7 (9), 2795-2799.
Gross, A. Levine, R. D., A mechanical representation of entropy for a large finite system, Journal of Chemical Physics, 2006, 125 (14), 9.
Remacle, F. Levine, R. D., An electronic time scale in chemistry, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2006, 103 (18), 6793-6798.
Remacle, F. Heath, J. R. Levine, R. D., Electrical addressing of confined quantum systems for quasiclassical computation and finite state logic machines, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2005, 102 (16), 5653-5658.
Somorjai, G. A. Levine, R. D., The changing landscape of physical chemistry at the beginning of the 21st century, Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 2005, 109 (19), 9853-9854.
Elbaz Johann, Lioubashevski Oleg, Wang Fuan, Remacle Françoise, Levine Raphael D, Willner Itamar, DNA computing circuits using libraries of DNAzyme subunits, Nature nanotechnology, 2010, 5 (6), 417-22.
Kravchenko-Balasha Nataly, Remacle F, Gross Ayelet, Rotter Varda, Levitzki Alexander, Levine R D, Convergence of logic of cellular regulation in different premalignant cells by an information theoretic approach, BMC systems biology, 2011, 5 (17), 42.
Muskatel B H, Remacle F, Thiemens Mark H, Levine R D, On the strong and selective isotope effect in the UV excitation of N2 with implications toward the nebula and Martian atmosphere, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2011, 108 (15), 6020-5.
Shin Young Shik, Remacle F, Fan Rong, Hwang Kiwook, Wei Wei, Ahmad Habib, Levine R D, Heath James R, Protein signaling networks from single cell fluctuations and information theory profiling, Biophysical journal, 2011, 100 (10), 2378-86.
Kravchenko-Balasha N, Remacle, F. Gross, A., Rotter, Varda, Levitzki Alexander, Levine, R.D., On a fundamental structure of gene networks in living cells. :, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012, 109 (12), 4702-4707..
Remacle F, Graeber TG, Levine RD , (2011) Whose Entropy: A Maximal Entropy Analysis of Phosphorylation Signaling. , Journal of Statistical Physics , 2011, 144 ((2)), 429-442.
Gross Ayelet, Levine Raphael D, Surprisal analysis of transcripts expression levels in the presence of noise: a reliable determination of the onset of a tumor phenotype, PloS one, 2013, 8 (4), e61554.
Wang Jun, Tham Douglas, Wei Wei, Shin Young Shik, Ma Chao, Ahmad Habib, Shi Qihui, Yu Jenkan, Levine Raphael D, Heath James R, Quantitating cell-cell interaction functions with applications to glioblastoma multiforme cancer cells, Nano letters, 2012, 12 (12), 6101-6.