California NanoSystems Institute
CNSI
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Robert Modlin, M.D.

   
Chief and Professor, Dermatology
Professor, Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics
Member, CTSI, California NanoSystems Institute, Immunity, Microbes & Molecular Pathogenesis GPB Home Area, Tumor Immunology Program at the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (JCCC)

Education:
Degrees:
M.D., New York University, 1976 - 1980
B.A., Johns Hopkins University, 1972 - 1976

Certifications:
Certifications:
1984 American Board of Dermatology

Education:
Internship:
1980 - 1981 New York University Medical Center
Residency:
1981 - 1984 LAC + USC Medical Center

Contact Information:
Work Email Address: rmodlin@mednet.ucla.edu
Laboratory Address: Laboratory
BSRB 210B

UNITED STATES
Work Address: UCLA Med-Derm
615 Charles E. Young South
210B BSRB
Los Angeles, CA 90095
UNITED STATES
Home Page: http://www.uclahealth.org/RobertModlin
Home Page: http://www.derm.med.ucla.edu
Work Phone Number: (310) 917-3376 Work
Research Interests:

Mechanisms of T-cell responsiveness to microbial pathogens
The major focus of our research has been to investigate mechanisms of host resistance and susceptibility to infection, with an emphasis on the immunobiology of antigen presentation, T-cell recognition and cytokine responses. Leprosy provides an extraordinary window onto immune regulation in humans, because the disease presents as a spectrum, in which the ability of the host to control the infection correlates with the level of the T-cell response to the pathogen, Mycobacterium leprae. Our approach has been to focus on the investigation of T lymphocytes at the site of disease activity in order to define cellular subsets and cytokine patterns which may contribute to resistance versus susceptibility to infection. Our lab is currently interested in the role of interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 in microbial immunity, analyzing the transcriptional regulation of mycobacterial induced IL-10 and IL-12 production and the signal transduction pathways leading to their release. For more than a decade, a central paradigm in immunology has been that T-cells recognize peptide antigen presented in the context of MHC molecules. Recent work in our laboratory has identified a pathway for non-MHC restricted presentation of nonpeptide antigens to T cells, thus substantially enlarging this central paradigm of T-cell recognition. This novel pathway involves the presentation of lipid and lipoglycan antigens by a family of MHC-related molecules, known collectively as CD1. Our studies show that T cells activated by this pathway can contribute functionally to the elimination of intracellular pathogens. Work is underway to study this unique antigen presentation pathway and to identify mechanisms by which CD1-restricted T cells kill microbial invaders. It is anticipated that such studies will lead to novel immunotherapeutic approaches against human infectious disease.


Additional Information:

Robert L. Modlin, M.D. is Chief, Division of Dermatology, and Professor of Dermatology, Department of Medicine and Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. He received his medical degree form New York University and residency training from Los Angeles County/ University of Southern California Medical Center.

Dr. Modlin's lab is interested in the immunology of microbial infection. Infectious disease poses a major health problem worldwide. Essential to control of these diseases is the elucidation of immune mechanisms that result in resistance versus susceptibility to infection. The laboratory's focus is the identification of novel mechanisms by which the innate and adaptive immune system combat microbial pathogens. Using leprosy as a model, Dr. Modlin's lab has made important contributions to our understanding of immunology including the role of mammalian Toll-like receptors and CD1-restricted T cells in host defense, including the cytokines pattens and antimicrobial pathways. These studies include 3 papers published in Nature and 10 in Science. It is hoped that the insights obtained from these studies will lead to better treatments and prevention of infectious diseases in humans.


Selected Publications:

Mirjam Schenk, Stephan R Krutzik, Peter A Sieling, Delphine J Lee, Rosane M B Teles, Maria Teresa Ochoa, Evangelia Komisopoulou, Euzenir N Sarno, Thomas H Rea, Thomas G Graeber, Soohyun Kim, Genhong Cheng & Robert L Modlin, NOD2 triggers an interleukin-32–dependent human dendritic cell program in leprosy, Nature Medicine, 2012, 18, 555-563.
Cruz D, Wang Z, Kibbie J, Modlin R, Kwon O, Organic Synthesis Toward Small-Molecule Probes and Drugs Special Feature: Diversity through phosphine catalysis identifies octahydro-1,6-naphthyridin-4-ones as activators of endothelium-driven immunity, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2011, Epub ahead of print.
Fabri M, Realegeno SE, Jo EK, Modlin RL, Role of autophagy in the host response to microbial infection and potential for therapy, Curr Opin Immunol, 2011, 23 (1), 65-70.
Ochoa MT, Teles R, Haas BE, Zaghi D, Li H, Sarno EN, Rea TH, Modlin RL, Lee DJ, A role for interleukin-5 in promoting increased immunoglobulin M at the site of disease in leprosy, Immunology, 2010, 131 (3), 405-14.
Cho JS, Pietras EM, Garcia NC, Ramos RI, Farzam DM, Monroe HR, Magorien JE, Blauvelt A, Kolls JK, Cheung AL, Cheng G, Modlin RL, Miller LS, IL-17 is essential for host defense against cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice, J Clin Invest, 2010, 120 (5), 1762-73.
Lee DJ, Li H, Ochoa MT, Tanaka M, Carbone RJ, Damoiseaux R, Burdick A, Sarno EN, Rea TH, Modlin RL, Integrated pathways for neutrophil recruitment and inflammation in leprosy, J Infect Dis, 2010, 201 (4), 558-69.
Teles RM, Krutzik SR, Ochoa MT, Oliveira RB, Sarno EN, Modlin RL, Interleukin-4 regulates the expression of CD209 and subsequent uptake of Mycobacterium leprae by Schwann cells in human leprosy, Infect Immun, 2010, 78 (11), 4634-43.
Montoya D, Modlin RL, Learning from leprosy: insight into the human innate immune response, Adv Immunol, 2010, 105, 1-24.
Shin DM, Yuk JM, Lee HM, Lee SH, Son JW, Harding CV, Kim JM, Modlin RL, Jo EK, Mycobacterial lipoprotein activates autophagy via TLR2/1/CD14 and a functional vitamin D receptor signalling, Cell Microbiol, 2010, 12 (11), 1648-65.
Cho JS, Zussman J, Donegan NP, Ramos RI, Garcia NC, Uslan DZ, Iwakura Y, Simon SI, Cheung AL, Modlin RL, Kim J, Miller LS, Noninvasive In Vivo Imaging to Evaluate Immune Responses and Antimicrobial Therapy against Staphylococcus aureus and USA300 MRSA Skin Infections, J Invest Dermatol, 2010, 131 (4), 907-15.
Edfeldt K, Liu PT, Chun R, Fabri M, Schenk M, Wheelwright M, Keegan C, Krutzik SR, Adams JS, Hewison M, Modlin RL, T-cell cytokines differentially control human monocyte antimicrobial responses by regulating vitamin D metabolism, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2010, 107 (52), 22593-8.
Modlin RL., The innate immune response in leprosy, Curr Opin Immunol, 2010, 22 (1), 48-54.
Chun RF, Lauridsen AL, Suon L, Zella LA, Pike JW, Modlin RL, Martineau AR, Wilkinson RJ, Adams J, Hewison M, Vitamin D-binding protein directs monocyte responses to 25-hydroxy- and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2010, 95 (7), 3368-76.
Fabri M, Modlin RL., A vitamin for autophagy, Cell Host Microbe, 2009, 6 (3), 201-3.
Tanaka M, Krutzik SR, Sieling PA, Lee DJ, Rea TH, Modlin RL, Activation of Fc gamma RI on monocytes triggers differentiation into immature dendritic cells that induce autoreactive T cell responses, J Immunol. , 2009, 183 (4), 2349-55.
Bruns H, Meinken C, Schauenberg P, Härter G, Kern P, Modlin RL, Antoni C, Stenger S., Anti-TNF immunotherapy reduces CD8+ T cell-mediated antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans, J Clin Invest, 2009, 119 (5), 1167-77.
Liu PT, Schenk M, Walker VP, Dempsey PW, Kanchanapoomi M, Wheelwright M, Vazirnia A, Zhang X, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Hollis BW, Cheng G, Modlin RL., Convergence of IL-1beta and VDR activation pathways in human TLR2/1-induced antimicrobial responses, PLoS One, 2009, 4 (6).
Montoya Dennis, Cruz Daniel, Teles Rosane M B, Lee Delphine J, Ochoa Maria Teresa, Krutzik Stephan R, Chun Rene, Schenk Mirjam, Zhang Xiaoran, Ferguson Benjamin G, Burdick Anne E, Sarno Euzenir N, Rea Thomas H, Hewison Martin, Adams John S, Cheng Genhong, Modlin Robert L, Divergence of macrophage phagocytic and antimicrobial programs in leprosy, Cell host & microbe, 2009, 6 (4), 343-53.
Shin OS, Miller LS, Modlin RL, Akira S, Uematsu S, Hu LT, Downstream signals for MyD88-mediated phagocytosis of Borrelia burgdorferi can be initiated by TRIF and are dependent on PI3K, J Immunol, 2009, 183 (1), 491-8.
Modlin RL, Brenner MB., T cell responses in microbial infection, Curr Opin Immunol, 2009, 21 (4), 365-6.
Schenk M, Belisle JT, Modlin RL., TLR2 looks at lipoproteins, Immunity, 2009, 31 (6), 847-9.
Walker VP, Modlin RL., The vitamin D connection to pediatric infections and immune function, Pediatr Res. , 2009, 65, 106R-113R.
Adams JS, Ren S, Liu PT, Chun RF, Lagishetty V, Gombart AF, Borregaard N, Modlin RL, Hewison M., Vitamin d-directed rheostatic regulation of monocyte antibacterial responses, J Immunol, 2009, 182 (7), 4289-95.
Ochoa MT, Loncaric A, Krutzik SR, Becker TC, Modlin RL, "Dermal dendritic cells" comprise two distinct populations: CD1+ dendritic cells and CD209+ macrophages, J Invest Dermatol, 2008, 128 (9), 2225-31.
Sieling PA, Hill PJ, Dobos KM, Brookman K, Kuhlman AM, Fabri M, Krutzik SR, Rea TH, Heaslip DG, Belisle JT, Modlin RL., Conserved mycobacterial lipoglycoproteins activate TLR2 but also require glycosylation for MHC class II-restricted T cell activation, J Immunol, 2008, 180 (9), 5833-42.
Lee DJ, Modlin RL., DNA transportation authority, Nat Med, 2008, 14 (12), 1319-20.
Cruz D, Watson AD, Miller CS, Montoya D, Ochoa MT, Sieling PA, Gutierrez MA, Navab M, Reddy ST, Witztum JL, Fogelman AM, Rea TH, Eisenberg D, Berliner J, Modlin RL., Host-derived oxidized phospholipids and HDL regulate innate immunity in human leprosy, J Clin Invest. , 2008, 118 (8), 2917-28.
Liu PT, Modlin RL., Human macrophage host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Curr Opin Immunol, 2008, 20 (4), 371-6.
Krutzik SR, Hewison M, Liu PT, Robles JA, Stenger S, Adams JS, Modlin RL., IL-15 links TLR2/1-induced macrophage differentiation to the vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway, J Immunol, 2008, 181 (10), 7115-20.
Niazi KR, Ochoa MT, Sieling PA, Rooke NE, Peter AK, Mollahan P, Dickey M, Rabizadeh S, Rea TH, Modlin RL, Activation of human CD4+ T cells by targeting MHC class II epitopes to endosomal compartments using human CD1 tail sequences, Immunology, 2007, 122 (4), 522-31.
Bhandarkar SS, Cohen C, Kuruvila M, Rea TH, Mackelfresh JB, Lee DJ, Modlin RL, Arbiser JL., Angiogenesis in cutaneous lesions of leprosy: implications for treatment, Arch Dermatol, 2007, 143 (12), 1527-9.
Di Nardo A, Braff MH, Taylor KR, Na C, Granstein RD, McInturff JE, Krutzik S, Modlin RL, Gallo RL., Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides block dendritic cell TLR4 activation and allergic contact sensitization, J Immunol, 2007, 178 (3), 1829-34.
Liu PT, Stenger S, Tang DH, Modlin RL., Cutting edge: vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the induction of cathelicidin, J Immunol, 2007, 179 (4), 2060-3.
Hewison M, Burke F, Evans KN, Lammas DA, Sansom DM, Liu P, Modlin RL, Adams JS, Extra-renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in human health and disease, J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 2007, 103 (3-5), 316-21.
Sabet S, Ochoa MT, Sieling PA, Rea TH, Modlin RL., Functional characterization of a T-cell receptor BV6+ T-cell clone derived from a leprosy lesion, Immunology, 2007, 120 (3), 354-61.
Miller LS, Modlin RL., Human keratinocyte Toll-like receptors promote distinct immune responses, J Invest Dermatol, 2007, 127 (2), 262-3.
Miller LS, Pietras EM, Uricchio LH, Hirano K, Rao S, Lin H, O'Connell RM, Iwakura Y, Cheung AL, Cheng G, Modlin RL., Inflammasome-mediated production of IL-1beta is required for neutrophil recruitment against Staphylococcus aureus in vivo, J Immunol, 2007, 179 (10), 6933-42.
Schauber J, Dorschner RA, Coda AB, Büchau AS, Liu PT, Kiken D, Helfrich YR, Kang S, Elalieh HZ, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Bikle DD, Modlin RL, Gallo RL., Injury enhances TLR2 function and antimicrobial peptide expression through a vitamin D-dependent mechanism, J Clin Invest, 2007, 117 (3), 803-11.
Winau F, Hegasy G, Weiskirchen R, Weber S, Cassan C, Sieling PA, Modlin RL, Liblau RS, Gressner AM, Kaufmann SH., Ito cells are liver-resident antigen-presenting cells for activating T cell responses, Immunity, 2007, 26 (1), 117-29.
Lee DJ, Sieling PA, Ochoa MT, Krutzik SR, Guo B, Hernandez M, Rea TH, Cheng G, Colonna M, Modlin RL., LILRA2 activation inhibits dendritic cell differentiation and antigen presentation to T cells, J Immunol, 2007, 179 (12), 8128-36.
Sieling PA, Legaspi A, Ochoa MT, Rea TH, Modlin RL., Regulation of human T-cell homing receptor expression in cutaneous bacterial infection, Immunology, 2007, 120 (4), 518-25.
Adams JS, Chen H, Chun R, Ren S, Wu S, Gacad M, Nguyen L, Ride J, Liu P, Modlin R, Hewison M., Substrate and enzyme trafficking as a means of regulating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D synthesis and action: the human innate immune response, J Bone Miner Res, 2007, 22 (2), V20-4.
Liu PT, Krutzik SR, Modlin RL., Therapeutic implications of the TLR and VDR partnership, Trends Mol Med. , 2007, 13 (3), 117-24.
Miller LS, Modlin RL., Toll-like receptors in the skin, Semin Immunopathol, 2007, 29 (1), 15-26.
Adams JS, Liu PT, Chun R, Modlin RL, Hewison M., Vitamin D in defense of the human immune response, Ann N Y Acad Sci. , 2007, 1117, 94-105.
Chow EK, Castrillo A, Shahangian A, Pei L, O'Connell RM, Modlin RL, Tontonoz P, Cheng G., A role for IRF3-dependent RXRalpha repression in hepatotoxicity associated with viral infections, J Exp Med. , 2006, 203 (12), 2589-602.
Im JS, Tapinos N, Chae GT, Illarionov PA, Besra GS, DeVries GH, Modlin RL, Sieling PA, Rambukkana A, Porcelli SA., Expression of CD1d molecules by human schwann cells and potential interactions with immunoregulatory invariant NK T cells, J Immunol. , 2006, 177 (8), 5226-35.
Hornell TM, Burster T, Jahnsen FL, Pashine A, Ochoa MT, Harding JJ, Macaubas C, Lee AW, Modlin RL, Mellins ED., Human dendritic cell expression of HLA-DO is subset specific and regulated by maturation, J Immunol, 2006, 176 (6), 3536-47.
Tan BH, Meinken C, Bastian M, Bruns H, Legaspi A, Ochoa MT, Krutzik SR, Bloom BR, Ganz T, Modlin RL, Stenger S., Macrophages acquire neutrophil granules for antimicrobial activity against intracellular pathogens, J Immunol. , 2006, 177 (3), 1864-71.
Renn CN, Sanchez DJ, Ochoa MT, Legaspi AJ, Oh CK, Liu PT, Krutzik SR, Sieling PA, Cheng G, Modlin RL., TLR activation of Langerhans cell-like dendritic cells triggers an antiviral immune response, J Immunol. , 2006, 177 (1), 298-305.
Liu Philip T, Stenger Steffen, Li Huiying, Wenzel Linda, Tan Belinda H, Krutzik Stephan R, Ochoa Maria Teresa, Schauber Jurgen, Wu Kent, Meinken Christoph, Kamen Diane L, Wagner Manfred, Bals Robert, Steinmeyer Andreas, Z????gel Ulrich, Gallo Richard L, Eisenberg David, Hewison Martin, Hollis Bruce W, Adams John S, Bloom Barry R, Modlin Robert L, Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response, Science, 2006, 311 (5768), 1770-3.
Lee DJ, Modlin RL., Breaking tolerance--another piece added to the vitiligo puzzle, J Invest Dermatol, 2005, 124 (1), xiii-xv.
Stegelmann F, Bastian M, Swoboda K, Bhat R, Kiessler V, Krensky AM, Roellinghoff M, Modlin RL, Stenger S., Coordinate expression of CC chemokine ligand 5, granulysin, and perforin in CD8+ T cells provides a host defense mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, J Immunol. , 2005, 175 (11), 7474-83.
Liu PT, Krutzik SR, Kim J, Modlin RL., Cutting edge: all-trans retinoic acid down-regulates TLR2 expression and function, J Immunol, 2005, 174 (5), 2467-70.
McInturff JE, Wang SJ, Machleidt T, Lin TR, Oren A, Hertz CJ, Krutzik SR, Hart S, Zeh K, Anderson DH, Gallo RL, Modlin RL, Kim J., Granulysin-derived peptides demonstrate antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects against Propionibacterium acnes, J Invest Dermatol, 2005, 125 (2), 256-63.
Modlin RL, Sieling PA., Immunology. Now presenting: gammadelta T cells, Science, 2005, 309 (5732), 252-3.
Miller LS, Sørensen OE, Liu PT, Jalian HR, Eshtiaghpour D, Behmanesh BE, Chung W, Starner TD, Kim J, Sieling PA, Ganz T, Modlin RL., TGF-alpha regulates TLR expression and function on epidermal keratinocytes, J Immunol, 2005, 174 (10), 6137-43.
Krutzik Stephan R, Tan Belinda, Li Huiying, Ochoa Maria Teresa, Liu Philip T, Sharfstein Sarah E, Graeber Thomas G, Sieling Peter A, Liu Yong-Jun, Rea Thomas H, Bloom Barry R, Modlin Robert L, TLR activation triggers the rapid differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and dendritic cells, Nat. Med, 2005, 11 (6), 653-60.
Sieling PA, Torrelles JB, Stenger S, Chung W, Burdick AE, Rea TH, Brennan PJ, Belisle JT, Porcelli SA, Modlin RL., The human CD1-restricted T cell repertoire is limited to cross-reactive antigens: implications for host responses against immunologically related pathogens, J Immunol. , 2005, 174 (5), 2637-44.
McInturff JE, Modlin RL, Kim J., The role of toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis and treatment of dermatological disease, J Invest Dermatol, 2005, 125 (1), 1-8.
Modlin RL, Cheng G., From plankton to pathogen recognition, Nat Med, 2004, 10 (11), 1173-4.
Hunger RE, Sieling PA, Ochoa MT, Sugaya M, Burdick AE, Rea TH, Brennan PJ, Belisle JT, Blauvelt A, Porcelli SA, Modlin RL., Langerhans cells utilize CD1a and langerin to efficiently present nonpeptide antigens to T cells, J Clin Invest. , 2004, 113 (5), 701-8.
Winau F, Schwierzeck V, Hurwitz R, Remmel N, Sieling PA, Modlin RL, Porcelli SA, Brinkmann V, Sugita M, Sandhoff K, Kaufmann SH, Schaible UE., Saposin C is required for lipid presentation by human CD1b, Nat Immunol, 2004, 5 (2), 169-74.
Krutzik SR, Modlin RL., The role of Toll-like receptors in combating mycobacteria, Semin Immunol, 2004, 16 (1), 35-41.
Doyle SE, O'Connell RM, Miranda GA, Vaidya SA, Chow EK, Liu PT, Suzuki S, Suzuki N, Modlin RL, Yeh WC, Lane TF, Cheng G., Toll-like receptors induce a phagocytic gene program through p38, J Exp Med, 2004, 199 (1), 81-90.
Torrelles JB, Khoo KH, Sieling PA, Modlin RL, Zhang N, Marques AM, Treumann A, Rithner CD, Brennan PJ, Chatterjee D., Truncated structural variants of lipoarabinomannan in Mycobacterium leprae and an ethambutol-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, J Biol Chem, 2004, 279 (39), 41227-39.
Bleharski JR, Kiessler V, Buonsanti C, Sieling PA, Stenger S, Colonna M, Modlin RL., A role for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in host defense during the early-induced and adaptive phases of the immune response, J Immunol, 2003, 170 (7), 3812-8.
Krutzik Stephan R, Ochoa Maria Teresa, Sieling Peter A, Uematsu Satoshi, Ng Yolanda W, Legaspi Annaliza, Liu Philip T, Cole Stewart T, Godowski Paul J, Maeda Yumi, Sarno Euzenir N, Norgard Michael V, Brennan Patrick J, Akira Shizuo, Rea Thomas H, Modlin Robert L, Activation and regulation of Toll-like receptors 2 and 1 in human leprosy, Nature medicine, 2003, 9 (5), 525-32.
Hertz CJ, Wu Q, Porter EM, Zhang YJ, Weismüller KH, Godowski PJ, Ganz T, Randell SH, Modlin RL., Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 on human tracheobronchial epithelial cells induces the antimicrobial peptide human beta defensin-2, J Immunol, 2003, 171 (12), 6820-6.
Schaible UE, Winau F, Sieling PA, Fischer K, Collins HL, Hagens K, Modlin RL, Brinkmann V, Kaufmann SH., Apoptosis facilitates antigen presentation to T lymphocytes through MHC-I and CD1 in tuberculosis, Nat Med, 2003, 9 (8), 1039-46.
Oliveira RB, Ochoa MT, Sieling PA, Rea TH, Rambukkana A, Sarno EN, Modlin RL., Expression of Toll-like receptor 2 on human Schwann cells: a mechanism of nerve damage in leprosy, Infect Immun. , 2003, 71 (3), 1427-33.
Gansert JL, Kiessler V, Engele M, Wittke F, Röllinghoff M, Krensky AM, Porcelli SA, Modlin RL, Stenger S., Human NKT cells express granulysin and exhibit antimycobacterial activity, J Immunol, 2003, 170 (6), 3154-61.
Arora T, Liu B, He H, Kim J, Murphy TL, Murphy KM, Modlin RL, Shuai K., PIASx is a transcriptional co-repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4, J Biol Chem, 2003, 278 (24), 21327-30.
Hertz CJ, Modlin RL., Role of toll-like receptors in response to bacterial infection, Contrib Microbiol, 2003, 10, 149-63.
Walton KA, Cole AL, Yeh M, Subbanagounder G, Krutzik SR, Modlin RL, Lucas RM, Nakai J, Smart EJ, Vora DK, Berliner JA., Specific phospholipid oxidation products inhibit ligand activation of toll-like receptors 4 and 2, Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2003, 23 (7), 1197-203.
Sieling PA, Chung W, Duong BT, Godowski PJ, Modlin RL., Toll-like receptor 2 ligands as adjuvants for human Th1 responses, J Immunol, 2003, 170 (1), 194-200.
Bleharski Joshua R, Li Huiying, Meinken Christoph, Graeber Thomas G, Ochoa Maria-Teresa, Yamamura Masahiro, Burdick Anne, Sarno Euzenir N, Wagner Manfred, Röllinghoff Martin, Rea Thomas H, Colonna Marco, Stenger Steffen, Bloom Barry R, Eisenberg David, Modlin Robert L, Use of genetic profiling in leprosy to discriminate clinical forms of the disease, Science (New York, N.Y.), 2003, 301 (5639), 1527-30.
Kim J, Ochoa MT, Krutzik SR, Takeuchi O, Uematsu S, Legaspi AJ, Brightbill HD, Holland D, Cunliffe WJ, Akira S, Sieling PA, Godowski PJ, Modlin RL., Activation of toll-like receptor 2 in acne triggers inflammatory cytokine responses, J Immunol. , 2002, 169 (3), 535-41.
Stenger S, Modlin RL., Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis through mammalian Toll-like receptors, Curr Opin Immunol. , 2002, 14 (4), 452-7.
Takeuchi O, Sato S, Horiuchi T, Hoshino K, Takeda K, Dong Z, Modlin RL, Akira S., Cutting edge: role of Toll-like receptor 1 in mediating immune response to microbial lipoproteins, J Immunol, 2002, 169 (1), 10-4.
Modlin RL., Learning from leprosy: insights into contemporary immunology from an ancient disease, Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. , 2002, 15 (1), 1-6.
Modlin RL., Mammalian toll-like receptors, Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2002, 88 (6), 543-7.
Niazi KR, Porcelli SA, Modlin RL., The CD1b structure: antigen presentation adapts to a high-fat diet, Nat Immunol. , 2002, 3 (8), 703-4.
Sieling PA, Modlin RL., Toll-like receptors: mammalian "taste receptors" for a smorgasbord of microbial invaders, Curr Opin Microbiol. , 2002, 5 (1), 70-5.
Fabri Mario, Modlin Robert L, A vitamin for autophagy, Cell host & microbe, 2009, 6 (3), 201-3.
Tanaka Motoyuki, Krutzik Stephan R, Sieling Peter A, Lee Delphine J, Rea Thomas H, Modlin Robert L, Activation of Fc gamma RI on monocytes triggers differentiation into immature dendritic cells that induce autoreactive T cell responses, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2009, 183 (4), 2349-55.
Modlin Robert L, Brenner Michael B, T cell responses in microbial infection, Current opinion in immunology, 2009, 21 (4), 365-6.
Liu Philip T, Schenk Mirjam, Walker Valencia P, Dempsey Paul W, Kanchanapoomi Melissa, Wheelwright Matthew, Vazirnia Aria, Zhang Xiaoran, Steinmeyer Andreas, Zügel Ulrich, Hollis Bruce W, Cheng Genhong, Modlin Robert L, Convergence of IL-1beta and VDR activation pathways in human TLR2/1-induced antimicrobial responses, PloS one, 2009, 4 (6), e5810.
Adams John S, Ren Songyang, Liu Philip T, Chun Rene F, Lagishetty Venu, Gombart Adrian F, Borregaard Niels, Modlin Robert L, Hewison Martin, Vitamin d-directed rheostatic regulation of monocyte antibacterial responses, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2009, 182 (7), 4289-95.
Lee Delphine J, Modlin Robert L, DNA transportation authority, Nature medicine, 2008, 14 (12), 1319-20.
Krutzik Stephan R, Hewison Martin, Liu Philip T, Robles Juan Antonio, Stenger Steffen, Adams John S, Modlin Robert L, IL-15 links TLR2/1-induced macrophage differentiation to the vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2008, 181 (10), 7115-20.
Ochoa Maria Teresa, Loncaric Anya, Krutzik Stephan R, Becker Todd C, Modlin Robert L, "Dermal dendritic cells" comprise two distinct populations: CD1+ dendritic cells and CD209+ macrophages, The Journal of investigative dermatology, 2008, 128 (9), 2225-31.
Liu Philip T, Modlin Robert L, Human macrophage host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Current opinion in immunology, 2008, 20 (4), 371-6.
Cruz Daniel, Watson Andrew D, Miller Christopher S, Montoya Dennis, Ochoa Maria-Teresa, Sieling Peter A, Gutierrez Miguel A, Navab Mohamad, Reddy Srinivasa T, Witztum Joseph L, Fogelman Alan M, Rea Thomas H, Eisenberg David, Berliner Judith, Modlin Robert L, Host-derived oxidized phospholipids and HDL regulate innate immunity in human leprosy, The Journal of clinical investigation, 2008, 118 (8), 2917-28.
Sieling Peter A, Hill Preston J, Dobos Karen M, Brookman Kerry, Kuhlman Andrew M, Fabri Mario, Krutzik Stephan R, Rea Thomas H, Heaslip Darragh G, Belisle John T, Modlin Robert L, Conserved mycobacterial lipoglycoproteins activate TLR2 but also require glycosylation for MHC class II-restricted T cell activation, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2008, 180 (9), 5833-42.
Lee Delphine J, Sieling Peter A, Ochoa Maria Teresa, Krutzik Stephan R, Guo Beichu, Hernandez Maristela, Rea Thomas H, Cheng Genhong, Colonna Marco, Modlin Robert L, LILRA2 activation inhibits dendritic cell differentiation and antigen presentation to T cells, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2007, 179 (12), 8128-36.
Miller Lloyd S, Pietras Eric M, Uricchio Lawrence H, Hirano Kathleen, Rao Shyam, Lin Heping, O'Connell Ryan M, Iwakura Yoichiro, Cheung Ambrose L, Cheng Genhong, Modlin Robert L, Inflammasome-mediated production of IL-1beta is required for neutrophil recruitment against Staphylococcus aureus in vivo, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2007, 179 (10), 6933-42.
Liu Philip T, Stenger Steffen, Tang Dominic H, Modlin Robert L, Cutting edge: vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the induction of cathelicidin, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2007, 179 (4), 2060-3.
Modlin Robert, The vitamin D receptor and its role in inflammation and host defence: interview with Dr Robert Modlin by Emma Quigley, Expert opinion on therapeutic targets, 2007, 11 (4), 431-3.
Sieling Peter A, Legaspi Annaliza, Ochoa Maria Teresa, Rea Thomas H, Modlin Robert L, Regulation of human T-cell homing receptor expression in cutaneous bacterial infection, Immunology, 2007, 120 (4), 518-25.
Miller Lloyd S, Modlin Robert L, Toll-like receptors in the skin, Seminars in immunopathology, 2007, 29 (1), 15-26.
Sabet Shereen, Ochoa Maria-Teresa, Sieling Peter A, Rea Thomas H, Modlin Robert L, Functional characterization of a T-cell receptor BV6+ T-cell clone derived from a leprosy lesion, Immunology, 2007, 120 (3), 354-61.
Schauber Jürgen, Dorschner Robert A, Coda Alvin B, Büchau Amanda S, Liu Philip T, Kiken David, Helfrich Yolanda R, Kang Sewon, Elalieh Hashem Z, Steinmeyer Andreas, Zügel Ulrich, Bikle Daniel D, Modlin Robert L, Gallo Richard L, Injury enhances TLR2 function and antimicrobial peptide expression through a vitamin D-dependent mechanism, The Journal of clinical investigation, 2007, 117 (3), 803-11.
Hewison Martin, Burke Fiona, Evans Katie N, Lammas David A, Sansom David M, Liu Philip, Modlin Robert L, Adams John S, Extra-renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase in human health and disease, The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology, 2007, 103 (3-5), 316-21.
Liu Philip T, Krutzik Stephan R, Modlin Robert L, Therapeutic implications of the TLR and VDR partnership, Trends in molecular medicine, 2007, 13 (3), 117-24.
Di Nardo Anna, Braff Marissa H, Taylor Kristen R, Na Changrim, Granstein Richard D, McInturff Jamie E, Krutzik Stephan, Modlin Robert L, Gallo Richard L, Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides block dendritic cell TLR4 activation and allergic contact sensitization, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2007, 178 (3), 1829-34.
Miller Lloyd S, Modlin Robert L, Human keratinocyte Toll-like receptors promote distinct immune responses, The Journal of investigative dermatology, 2007, 127 (2), 262-3.
Chow Edward K, Castrillo Antonio, Shahangian Arash, Pei Liming, O'Connell Ryan M, Modlin Robert L, Tontonoz Peter, Cheng Genhong, A role for IRF3-dependent RXRalpha repression in hepatotoxicity associated with viral infections, The Journal of experimental medicine, 2006, 203 (12), 2589-602.
Tan Belinda H, Meinken Christoph, Bastian Max, Bruns Heiko, Legaspi Annaliza, Ochoa Maria Teresa, Krutzik Stephan R, Bloom Barry R, Ganz Tomas, Modlin Robert L, Stenger Steffen, Macrophages acquire neutrophil granules for antimicrobial activity against intracellular pathogens, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2006, 177 (3), 1864-71.
Renn Claudia N, Sanchez David Jesse, Ochoa Maria Teresa, Legaspi Annaliza J, Oh Chang-Keun, Liu Philip T, Krutzik Stephan R, Sieling Peter A, Cheng Genhong, Modlin Robert L, TLR activation of Langerhans cell-like dendritic cells triggers an antiviral immune response, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2006, 177 (1), 298-305.
Miller Lloyd S, O'Connell Ryan M, Gutierrez Miguel A, Pietras Eric M, Shahangian Arash, Gross Catherine E, Thirumala Ajaykumar, Cheung Ambrose L, Cheng Genhong, Modlin Robert L, MyD88 mediates neutrophil recruitment initiated by IL-1R but not TLR2 activation in immunity against Staphylococcus aureus, Immunity, 2006, 24 (1), 79-91.
McInturff Jamie E, Wang Shyh-Jeun, Machleidt Thomas, Lin T Richard, Oren Ami, Hertz Cheryl J, Krutzik Stephan R, Hart Scott, Zeh Karin, Anderson Daniel H, Gallo Richard L, Modlin Robert L, Kim Jenny, Granulysin-derived peptides demonstrate antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects against Propionibacterium acnes, The Journal of investigative dermatology, 2005, 125 (2), 256-63.
Modlin Robert L, Sieling Peter A, Immunology. Now presenting: gammadelta T cells, Science (New York, N.Y.), 2005, 309 (5732), 252-3.
McInturff Jamie E, Modlin Robert L, Kim Jenny, The role of toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis and treatment of dermatological disease, The Journal of investigative dermatology, 2005, 125 (1), 1-8.
Miller Lloyd S, Sørensen Ole E, Liu Philip T, Jalian H Ray, Eshtiaghpour Deborah, Behmanesh Behnaz E, Chung Woosin, Starner Timothy D, Kim Jenny, Sieling Peter A, Ganz Tomas, Modlin Robert L, TGF-alpha regulates TLR expression and function on epidermal keratinocytes, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2005, 174 (10), 6137-43.
Sieling Peter A, Torrelles Jordi B, Stenger Steffen, Chung Woosin, Burdick Anne E, Rea Thomas H, Brennan Patrick J, Belisle John T, Porcelli Steven A, Modlin Robert L, The human CD1-restricted T cell repertoire is limited to cross-reactive antigens: implications for host responses against immunologically related pathogens, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2005, 174 (5), 2637-44.
Liu Philip T, Krutzik Stephan R, Kim Jenny, Modlin Robert L, Cutting edge: all-trans retinoic acid down-regulates TLR2 expression and function, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2005, 174 (5), 2467-70.
Modlin Robert L, Cheng Genhong, From plankton to pathogen recognition, Nature medicine, 2004, 10 (11), 1173-4.
Lee Delphine J, Modlin Robert L, Breaking tolerance--another piece added to the vitiligo puzzle, The Journal of investigative dermatology, 2005, 124 (1), xiii-xv.
Marinelli Laura J, Fitz-Gibbon Sorel, Hayes Clarmyra, Bowman Charles, Inkeles Megan, Loncaric Anya, Russell Daniel A, Jacobs-Sera Deborah, Cokus Shawn, Pellegrini Matteo, Kim Jenny, Miller Jeff F, Hatfull Graham F, Modlin Robert L, Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophages display limited genetic diversity and broad killing activity against bacterial skin isolates, mBio, 2012, 3 (5).
Hunger Robert E, Sieling Peter A, Ochoa Maria Teresa, Sugaya Makoto, Burdick Anne E, Rea Thomas H, Brennan Patrick J, Belisle John T, Blauvelt Andrew, Porcelli Steven A, Modlin Robert L, Langerhans cells utilize CD1a and langerin to efficiently present nonpeptide antigens to T cells, The Journal of clinical investigation, 2004, 113 (5), 701-8.
Krutzik Stephan R, Modlin Robert L, The role of Toll-like receptors in combating mycobacteria, Seminars in immunology, 2004, 16 (1), 35-41.
Schenk Mirjam, Krutzik Stephan R, Sieling Peter A, Lee Delphine J, Teles Rosane M B, Ochoa Maria Teresa, Komisopoulou Evangelia, Sarno Euzenir N, Rea Thomas H, Graeber Thomas G, Kim Soohyun, Cheng Genhong, Modlin Robert L, NOD2 triggers an interleukin-32-dependent human dendritic cell program in leprosy, Nature medicine, 2012, 18 (4), 555-63.
Doyle Sean E, O'Connell Ryan M, Miranda Gustavo A, Vaidya Sagar A, Chow Edward K, Liu Philip T, Suzuki Shinobu, Suzuki Nobutaka, Modlin Robert L, Yeh Wen-Chen, Lane Timothy F, Cheng Genhong, Toll-like receptors induce a phagocytic gene program through p38, The Journal of experimental medicine, 2004, 199 (1), 81-90.
Hertz Cheryl J, Wu Qi, Porter Edith Martin, Zhang Yan J, Weismüller Karl-Heinz, Godowski Paul J, Ganz Tomas, Randell Scott H, Modlin Robert L, Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 on human tracheobronchial epithelial cells induces the antimicrobial peptide human beta defensin-2, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2003, 171 (12), 6820-6.
Modlin Robert L, Innate immunity: ignored for decades, but not forgotten, The Journal of investigative dermatology, 2012, 132 (3 Pt 2), 882-6.
Schaible Ulrich E, Winau Florian, Sieling Peter A, Fischer Karsten, Collins Helen L, Hagens Kristine, Modlin Robert L, Brinkmann Volker, Kaufmann Stefan H E, Apoptosis facilitates antigen presentation to T lymphocytes through MHC-I and CD1 in tuberculosis, Nature medicine, 2003, 9 (8), 1039-46.
Liu Philip T, Wheelwright Matthew, Teles Rosane, Komisopoulou Evangelia, Edfeldt Kristina, Ferguson Benjamin, Mehta Manali D, Vazirnia Aria, Rea Thomas H, Sarno Euzenir N, Graeber Thomas G, Modlin Robert L, MicroRNA-21 targets the vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway in leprosy, Nature medicine, 2012, 18 (2), 267-73.
Walton Kimberly A, Cole Amy L, Yeh Michael, Subbanagounder Ganesamoorthy, Krutzik Stephan R, Modlin Robert L, Lucas Robert M, Nakai Junko, Smart Eric J, Vora Deven K, Berliner Judith A, Specific phospholipid oxidation products inhibit ligand activation of toll-like receptors 4 and 2, Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology, 2003, 23 (7), 1197-203.
Realegeno Susan, Modlin Robert L, Shedding light on the vitamin D-tuberculosis-HIV connection, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2011, 108 (47), 18861-2.
Bleharski Joshua R, Kiessler Viviane, Buonsanti Cecilia, Sieling Peter A, Stenger Steffen, Colonna Marco, Modlin Robert L, A role for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in host defense during the early-induced and adaptive phases of the immune response, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2003, 170 (7), 3812-8.
Arora Taruna, Liu Bin, He Hongchin, Kim Jenny, Murphy Theresa L, Murphy Kenneth M, Modlin Robert L, Shuai Ke, PIASx is a transcriptional co-repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4, The Journal of biological chemistry, 2003, 278 (24), 21327-30.
Gansert Jennifer L, Kiessler Viviane, Engele Matthias, Wittke Frederick, Röllinghoff Martin, Krensky Alan M, Porcelli Steven A, Modlin Robert L, Stenger Steffen, Human NKT cells express granulysin and exhibit antimycobacterial activity, Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 2003, 170 (6), 3154-61.
Walker Valencia P, Zhang Xiaoran, Rastegar Ida, Liu Philip T, Hollis Bruce W, Adams John S, Modlin Robert L, Cord blood vitamin D status impacts innate immune responses, The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 2011, 96 (6), 1835-43.
Fabri Mario, Stenger Steffen, Shin Dong-Min, Yuk Jae-Min, Liu Philip T, Realegeno Susan, Lee Hye-Mi, Krutzik Stephan R, Schenk Mirjam, Sieling Peter A, Teles Rosane, Montoya Dennis, Iyer Shankar S, Bruns Heiko, Lewinsohn David M, Hollis Bruce W, Hewison Martin, Adams John S, Steinmeyer Andreas, Zügel Ulrich, Cheng Genhong, Jo Eun-Kyeong, Bloom Barry R, Modlin Robert L, Vitamin D is required for IFN-gamma-mediated antimicrobial activity of human macrophages, Science translational medicine, 2011, 3 (104), 104ra102.
Oliveira Rosane B, Ochoa Maria T, Sieling Peter A, Rea Thomas H, Rambukkana Anura, Sarno Euzenir N, Modlin Robert L, Expression of Toll-like receptor 2 on human Schwann cells: a mechanism of nerve damage in leprosy, Infection and immunity, 2003, 71 (3), 1427-33.
Teles Rosane M B, Graeber Thomas G, Krutzik Stephan R, Montoya Dennis, Schenk Mirjam, Lee Delphine J, Komisopoulou Evangelia, Kelly-Scumpia Kindra, Chun Rene, Iyer Shankar S, Sarno Euzenir N, Rea Thomas H, Hewison Martin, Adams John S, Popper Stephen J, Relman David A, Stenger Steffen, Bloom Barry R, Cheng Genhong, Modlin Robert L, Type I interferon suppresses type II interferon-triggered human anti-mycobacterial responses, Science (New York, N.Y.), 2013, 339 (6126), 1448-53.
Anderson Daniel H, Sawaya Michael R, Cascio Duilio, Ernst William, Modlin Robert, Krensky Alan, Eisenberg David, Granulysin crystal structure and a structure-derived lytic mechanism, Journal of molecular biology, 2003, 325 (2), 355-65.
Cho John S, Zussman Jamie, Donegan Niles P, Ramos Romela Irene, Garcia Nairy C, Uslan Daniel Z, Iwakura Yoichiro, Simon Scott I, Cheung Ambrose L, Modlin Robert L, Kim Jenny, Miller Lloyd S, Noninvasive in vivo imaging to evaluate immune responses and antimicrobial therapy against Staphylococcus aureus and USA300 MRSA skin infections, The Journal of investigative dermatology, 2011, 131 (4), 907-15.
Hertz Cheryl J, Modlin Robert L, Role of toll-like receptors in response to bacterial infection, Contributions to microbiology, 2003, 10 (2), 149-63.
Fitz-Gibbon Sorel, Tomida Shuta, Chiu Bor-Han, Nguyen Lin, Du Christine, Liu Minghsun, Elashoff David, Erfe Marie C, Loncaric Anya, Kim Jenny, Modlin Robert L, Miller Jeff F, Sodergren Erica, Craft Noah, Weinstock George M, Li Huiying, Propionibacterium acnes Strain Populations in the Human Skin Microbiome Associated with Acne, The Journal of investigative dermatology, 2013, 207 (6).
Glimcher Laurie H, Martinon Fabio, Modlin Robert L, Editorial overview, Current opinion in immunology, 2011, 23 (1), 1-2.
Ochoa Maria-Teresa, Legaspi Annaliza J, Hatziris Zena, Godowski Paul J, Modlin Robert L, Sieling Peter A, Distribution of Toll-like receptor 1 and Toll-like receptor 2 in human lymphoid tissue, Immunology, 2003, 108 (1), 10-5.
Fabri Mario, Realegeno Susan E, Jo Eun-Kyeong, Modlin Robert L, Role of autophagy in the host response to microbial infection and potential for therapy, Current opinion in immunology, 2011, 23 (1), 65-70.
Parvatiyar Kislay, Zhang Zhiqiang, Teles Rosane M, Ouyang Songying, Jiang Yan, Iyer Shankar S, Zaver Shivam A, Schenk Mirjam, Zeng Shang, Zhong Wenwan, Liu Zhi-Jie, Modlin Robert L, Liu Yong-jun, Cheng Genhong, The helicase DDX41 recognizes the bacterial secondary messengers cyclic di-GMP and cyclic di-AMP to activate a type I interferon immune response, Nature immunology, 2012, 13 (12), 1155-61.
Edfeldt Kristina, Liu Philip T, Chun Rene, Fabri Mario, Schenk Mirjam, Wheelwright Matthew, Keegan Caroline, Krutzik Stephan R, Adams John S, Hewison Martin, Modlin Robert L, T-cell cytokines differentially control human monocyte antimicrobial responses by regulating vitamin D metabolism, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2010, 107 (52), 22593-8.
Ochoa Maria T, Teles Rosane, Haas Blake E, Zaghi Danny, Li Huiying, Sarno Euzenir N, Rea Thomas H, Modlin Robert L, Lee Delphine J, A role for interleukin-5 in promoting increased immunoglobulin M at the site of disease in leprosy, Immunology, 2010, 131 (3), 405-14.
Teles Rosane M B, Krutzik Stephan R, Ochoa Maria T, Oliveira Rosane B, Sarno Euzenir N, Modlin Robert L, Interleukin-4 regulates the expression of CD209 and subsequent uptake of Mycobacterium leprae by Schwann cells in human leprosy, Infection and immunity, 2010, 78 (11), 4634-43.
Cho John S, Pietras Eric M, Garcia Nairy C, Ramos Romela Irene, Farzam David M, Monroe Holly R, Magorien Julie E, Blauvelt Andrew, Kolls Jay K, Cheung Ambrose L, Cheng Genhong, Modlin Robert L, Miller Lloyd S, IL-17 is essential for host defense against cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice, The Journal of clinical investigation, 2010, 120 (5), 1762-73.
Lee Delphine J, Li Huiying, Ochoa Maria T, Tanaka Motoyuki, Carbone Ryan J, Damoiseaux Robert, Burdick Anne, Sarno Euzenir N, Rea Thomas H, Modlin Robert L, Integrated pathways for neutrophil recruitment and inflammation in leprosy, The Journal of infectious diseases, 2010, 201 (4), 558-69.
Modlin Robert L, The innate immune response in leprosy, Current opinion in immunology, 2010, 22 (1), 48-54.
Montoya Dennis, Modlin Robert L, Learning from leprosy: insight into the human innate immune response, Advances in immunology, 2010, 105 (1), 1-24.
Schenk Mirjam, Belisle John T, Modlin Robert L, TLR2 looks at lipoproteins, Immunity, 2009, 31 (6), 847-9.